|Manuscript Title:|| ||THE TRINITY APOCALYPSE|
|Date:|| ||Cent. xiii, cir. 1250|
|Physical Description:|| ||Double columns of 56 lines. Of magnificent execution: Anglo-Norman.|
|| ||The binding (xvi-xvii) is of white skin with gold tooling. The royal arms and crown in the centre.
|Provenance:|| ||Note: Vid. Epistolam Mri & Seniorum inter Chartular praenobilis illius Foeminae Dominae Anne Sadleir in hac classe reservatas. There is an oldish mark (xvii) in te cover: J.1.10 (R.5.5), probably later than the date of its arrival here.|
|Donor:|| ||Given by Dame Anne Sadleir. On the fly-leaf she has written: I commit this booke to the custodie of the Right Reuerend Father in God Raffe Lo: Bishop of Exon, when times are better setled (which God hasten) it is with my other booke & my coins giuen to Trinitie Colledge Librarie in Cambridge, God in his good time restore her with her Sister Oxford to there pristine happiness, the Vulger People to there former obedience, and God blesſ and restore Charles the Second, & make him like his most glorious Father. Amen. |
August the 20tie. 1649. Anne Sadleir.
|Collation:|| ||a2 1 stuck to cover || 18-38 46 54 (3 stuck to cover, 4 canc.).|
On f.1 of text is an erasure.
On the verso of f.32 (last fly-leaf) is a faint trace of a name (?) in a large hand, which I think is He..., possibly for Prince Henry.
Col. 1. Tut des mescreauns crurent en nostre seignur iusu crist par le prechement seint iohan le apostle.
-v il par la demustraunce de deu uit e ascrit le apocalipse en teu manere.
Col. 2. Nostre seignur i. c. apres sun releuer enuea sas desiples
-e deslia muys del errur de la paenierie.
It seems as if the text of these two columns ought to be transposed.
f.2b Col. 1. De (for Le) apocalipse ihesu crist ke deu li duna.
Col. 2. Uerrai chose est seint Iohan le euangeliste auer esscrit cest liuere. Apocalipse signefie demustraunce.
On f.3 which has no pictures, the text of the Apocalypse is continued on col. 1, and that of the comment on col. 2, and so on until half-way down f.4a. At this point the Epistles to the Seven Churches end. The comment on them ends:
Ke uus fuseis cunstreint a fere bens par pour del fu pardurable e repentir des maus. Mes pur co ke uus estes teue io comencera a uomir tai.
Text and comment continue in alternate columns, where they are of equal length: where the comment is more voluminous, it spreads into long lines extending across the page. f.20a is wholly occupied with writing, and also f.25. On the recto of this are text and comment in two columns; on the verso, comment only, in long single lines. The subject, a disquisition on the precious stones of the New Jerusalem. f.27b is also wholly writing. The text and comment end on this page: the latter, thus:
E la grace nostre seignur ihesu crist seit od nus tus e nus doint les armes des uertues par les queues nus garni' od lu dustre e baneur seums defendu' des enemis foreins e de ceus de deins. ke nus deseruuns estre parceneres de la uie pardurable. ki uit e regne od le pere e od le seint espirit en secle de secles. Amen.
The comment is a French version of the Exposition of Berengaudus (cent. viii, ix) on the Apocalypse. This was sometimes attributed to St Ambrose and is printed among his works (Migne, P.L. XVII. 842). The comment on the Epistles to the Seven Churches is considerably shortened in our MS., and probably that is the case in other parts of the book.
This is unquestionably one of the very finest specimens of a pictured Apocalypse which exists: and there are a great many of them. Not much has been written about it, but it is referred to by Waagen (Art Treasures in Great Britain) and by M. Samuel Berger, La Bible FranÃ§aise.
It is unnecessary to spend words upon praising the art of the book. The Paris Apocalypse (Bibl. Nat. Fr. 403) comes nearest to our MS. of any. It is even said to be slightly better in execution. It, too, is of English or Anglo-Norman origin. A complete facsimile in photography is in process of publication.
The Bodleian MS. of the Apocalypse, published for the Roxburghe Club in 1876, under the auspices of the Rev. H. O. Coxe, though widely different in aspect from this MS., is not very far distant from it in date. It is slightly later, and its pictures are rather markedly similar in composition to these. It will therefore be occasionally referred to in the course of my description.
Three artists (perhaps four) have been employed, I believe, upon the pictures. One is responsible for the first sixteen leaves, and for the pictures of St John's life at the end, except the last leaf. His peculiarity is that he marks the colour in the faces of his figures. Their cheeks are graced with patches of pink. The second artist-quite the equal of the first in ability-leaves his faces pale. His work extends from f.17 to f.27 inclusive, with the possible exception of the remarkable picture of the New Jerusalem on f.25b. This, which affords the finest specimen of gold work in the book, I rather incline to attribute to a third artist. The figures seem to me to differ from the work of the other two. The last pictured leaf, f.31, is unfinished. The inscriptions have not been added. In style it resembles the work of the second painter: but it is not so carefully drawn, and if it be his, he did this particular piece of work in a hurry. If not, it belongs to a fourth and inferior artist.
The pictures are distinguished by an extremely fine dry touch: and the scale of colour gives them an appearance of flatness, while they are at the same time incomparably rich.
The backgrounds are alternately blue and brown, studded with white patterns. At first they are wholly of one or other colour: later on, there is a central panel of the one and a broad border of the other.
The frames are uniformly plain bands of burnished gold.
The opening and closing pictures illustrate with unusual
copiousness the Life of St John the Evangelist. There are eight scenes at the beginning and 22 at the end. The source employed by the designer is a little difficult to determine. The pictures follow very closely the order of the events given in the Legenda Aurea: but there are details (especially the picture of the raising of three dead men in no. 77) which point rather to the Passio Johannis of the Pseudo-Melito (Fabr. Cod. Apocr. N. T. II.604).
f.1a. In three tiers.
1. In Centre, St John, young, standing full face under a gabled roof. On R. 3, and on L. 3, converts: each group has a label and so has John:
Theirs is: Nus refusums les ydles e creum en le deu (en ihesu) ki (sein) iohan preche.
John's: (T)ote choses sunt fet par deu et seins lu nest rein fet.
Legend, above: Ci cum sein iohan le ewangeliste preche la parole deu as mescreaunz.
2. On L. John baptizes Drusiana in a font supported by arches. Two Christians on R. On R. of this a tower, and three pagans looking in, one in close cap, one in winged hat, and one in peaked hat.
Ci cum sein iohan baptize drusieine Â· Dunt les paens cureces felenellement le espierent.
3. L.: Pagans with label (1): two holding John. Accuser with label (2). The 'provost' throned with sword and label (3).
Ci cum le amenent deuaunt le prouost de ephese ki cumaunda ke il fust mene a domicien le amp(er)eur.
The labels are: (1) Traez iohan al prouost kar il enentist le onur de nos deus.
(2) Cestu ad despit nos deus e enentist lur onur.
(3) (P)resentez iohan le enemi de nos deus a cesar.
4. John led to the sea embarks in a ship. Two scenes. John on L. led by a man with stick and cloak over shoulder. On R. John with two men behind him steps into a ship in which are five men: one (small) on the yard, another having his head held over the side by a friend.
(I)ci cum seint iohan ua uers la nef. e cum il se met en la nef uers roume a domicien le empereur.
5. John before Domitian. One behind him. He has a label: (D)eu enuea sun fiz en le munde ke nus uiuums par lu. Accuser facing R. with label: Cestu destrut le onur de nos deus par nouele aprise. Domitian throned full face on gold ground under trefoil arch: a white dog at his feet. He has sceptre and label: (M)etez iohan en un ton(el) de oile ardant por co ke il despit nos deus. A counsellor under arch on R. in gown with sword.
(I)ci cum seint iohan est ancuse de sa aprise deuant le empereur. e cum le empereur cumaunde ke il seit mis en un tonel plein de oile ardant.
6. John before the Latin Gate: he is clad in linen drawers and steps into the caldron. The gate ((P)orta latina), many-coloured, is on L. A man leans on a staff in front of it and looks on. Two men are behind John as he steps into the tub (of wood with iron bands). He steps out on R. towards a savage and horrified man.
Ici cum il est mis en le tunel. e cum il sen ist si nest de ren blesce par la grace de deu.
f.2a. 7. Domitian orders him into exile. Counsellor, with sword on L. Domitian throned under architecture with label: (M)etez iohan ki despit nos deus en issil en le isle ki est apele patmos. John (hooded) on R. led away by two violent men.
(I)ci cumaunde domicien ke sein iohan seit issillez en le isle ke est apele pathmos
8. The Voyage to Patmos. John seated full face with book in a ship, with a dragon's head at the stern and a bird at the prow. Three other men, two with paddles, one with arm raised to the sail.
(I)ci est seint iohan mis en nef uers le isle ki est apel pathmos.
f.2b. 9. The Vision of the Angel. The Seven Churches. On L. in a square compartment, John sleeps on a square isle with wavy shores, surrounded by green water. An angel stands over him with label: (C)o ke uus ueez escriuez en un liuere e enueez a set eglises. On R. the seven churches in two rows, 3 above, and 4 below. They are of various forms, but generally speaking consist of a cupola or dome between two towers. An angel with book stands in the arch of each (half-length). The names of the
churches are written on white bands above them. Ephesus is put on L. above.
(I)ci est seint iohan en le isle de pathmos.
10. He adores the Son of Man. On L. he stands looking to R. An angel's face in the sky speaks to him: (C)o ke uus ueez escriuez en liuere e enueez a set eglises ephesum etc. -laodiciam. Below this label are four gold candlesticks. Then John prostrate at the feet of Christ, who stands in blue robe with gold girdle, gold face, red eyes, and grey hair. A sword goes from His mouth to L. He has a label: (N)e dutez ren. io su premeren e derein e uif etc. -e ke kouein estrefet apres ices choses (Rev. i.17b-19).
f.3a, b. Text.
f.4a. 11. The Door opened in heaven. A narrow compartment on L.: below, John looking up. Above, the door open. Within, the head of an angel blowing a trumpet, whence issues a label: Muntez sa e io uus mustrerai ke kuuent estre fet apres ices choses. The rest of the picture is divided into four bands, interrupted in C. by a
rectangle enclosing a circle. In the circle is God, in the spandrels the four Beasts.
The Elders have each a harp and a narrow-necked bottle. In the upper row are eight, and in the 2nd and 3rd rows four each, in the lowest eight.
The face of God is green ("in sight like unto an emerald"). He holds a book liber signatus, and a flowering sceptre virga iusticie. On either side of the throne are three nimbed beasts' heads labelled fulgura, uoces, tonitrua, and below His feet is the globe, lettered Asia, Affrica, Europa. Below there is white water.
f.4b. 12. The Elders above. The sealed book in the hand of God. John is in a narrow compartment on L. In C. a mandorla. God seated, with sealed book and sceptre, and sphere (on water) below His feet. The ground behind Him is gold. In the spandrels the four beasts with labels Scs. Scs. Scs. nostre seignur deu tut puisant ki est. On R. and L. four square spaces each containing six kneeling Elders, with gold vials: some take off their crowns. Two labels run across the groups. (N)ostre seignur deu uus estes digne receiuere glorie e honur etc. -e sunt tutes chases criez (iv.11).
f.5a. 13. The Angel proclaims. Quis est dignus. John on L. The angel holds a label (K)i est digne ouerir le liuere e delier les signacles de lu. John weeps.
On R. an Elder speaks to him: he has a label Ne plureiz Â· ueez le leun del ligne iuda etc. -e sas set seaus (v.5).
14. The Lamb takes the book. In a narrow compartment on L. is John with book. On R. three compartments: R. and L. groups, each of 13 angels with label: (L)i aignel ki est oscis raceiuer glorie etc. (v.12). In C. a mandorla (the four beasts in the spandrels). God seated full-face with sceptre. The Lamb takes the book (on L.). In the throne are six faces. Before it the Lamb with banner, a spear wounding its breast. It holds a book inscribed: le nouel testament e le veil. Next below, a narrow band containing the 24 Elders, each with a harp and gold vial. In C, a label (N)ostre seignur deu estes digne-de tus lignages e langages (v.9). Below this, another narrow band. On L. water with fish: then birds (swan, peacock, cock, etc.): twelve men and women in two groups, with label (B)eneisun e honur etc. -en secle de secles (v.13): group of beasts (horse, ox, lion, etc.): water with fish and two swans.
f.5b. 15. The first horse. The composition of 15-17 is as in the Bodleian MS. (Bodl.). John on L. Demi-angel with scroll: (V)eneis ueer. Rider on white horse, crowned, with arrow on bowstring.
f.6a. 16. The second horse. The lion in air has the label: (V)enez ueer. Co est a dire. Entendez aspirituaument co ke uus lisez. Crowned rider on red horse, with sword.
17. The third horse. The ox with label inscribed as in the last. The rider on the black horse, crowned, with balances.
f.6b. 18. The pale (brown) horse (as Bodl). He has nothing in his vial. Hell-mouth, full of devils, follows him. Over it is the eagle, with label as before.
19. The Souls under the altar (as Bodl). John on L. The altar with panelled frontal stands on four arches. In each stands a nude figure. Les almes des tues pur le amur de deu. Across them a label: Seint e uerrai seignur etc. -ki habitent en la tere (vi.10). On R. two angels clothe two souls.
f.7a. 20. The sixth seal. The earthquake. John on L. Above on R, of him, black sun and red moon: mountains in air: falling towers: terrified crowd (a king among them) run to a mountain on R. They have a label: Muntaines chees sur nus e musceis nus de le face del seant sur le trone e del ire del agnel pur co ke (vi.16).
21. John on L. A great circle, the circumference red with green water inside. At the cardinal points stand four angels, each between two trees, holding winged masks (winds). Within is an oblong, divided into 12 narrow compartments in two rows: each contains a number of figures, and above each is written: le ligne iuda, -ruben, -gad, etc. In the upper R. corner an angel proceeds out of the sun, with a label: (N)e nuseis a la tere etc. -en lur fruns (vii.3).
f.7b. 22. Three tiers: the first in three divisions. C. mandorla (four beasts in spandrels): God enthroned, with Lamb on L.: globe inscribed (A)sia, (A)ffrica, (E)uropa below His feet: six faces on the throne. R. and L. kneeling angels (7 on each side). Label: (B)eneisun e clarte etc. -en secle de secles amen (vii. 12).
Second tier. The 24 Elders crowned, seated, with harps.
The third. John on L. with label: (M)un seignur uus sauez. Crowned elder with two labels: (1) (I)ceus ki sunt cuuert de blanches uestures ki sunt il e dunt uindrent. (2) (I)ceus sunt ki uindrent etc. -en le sanc del aignel (vii.14). On R. a crowd of men and women (a Bishop, a monk, etc.) in white, with palms. Label: (S)aunte seit a nostre deu etc. e al aignel (vii.10).
f.8a. 23. Two tiers. A. John on L. with book. Seven anglers receive trumpets from an eighth. On R. in mandorla, God enthroned, as in 22, without the globe.
B. John. Six angels with trumpets. A seventh on R. blows trumpet over trees.
25. John. The second angel blows trumpet. Sea, green with band or red. Two ships capsize: others on R. with frightened crews.
f. 9a. 26. John. Angel with trumpet. Men tearing their hair, etc., by a river, inwo which a star (A)bsinthium falls.
27. John. Angel with trumpet. Gold sun and moon on r. Below them a flying eagle, with label: Alas, alas alas as habitaunz en tere (viii. 13).
f.9b. 28. John. Angel with trumpet. The locusts, black bodies, winged, crowned, issue from "le put de abisme". Their king, crowned, black, and winged, is mounted on one: Le rei de greiluns. Si est apele en fraunceis dewastaunt. Terrified men on R.
f.10a. 29. Two tiers. A. John. Angel with trumpet. God enthroned in an eight-foil medallion in air. From a face on L. of throne proceeds a label: Desliez les quatre aungeles - de eufraten (ix. 14). On R. the four angels, with visious brown faces and bound hands, lie on green water. An angel unbinds the hands of one, who grins at him.
B. The four angels stand on water. A troop of mailed horsemen, with hideous grinning faces and hooked noses, ride to R. mounted on locusts, which breathe fire on to men on R.
f.10b. 31. A. John. The great angel surrounded by a cloud, a rainbow over his head, raised hand: R. foot on water, L. on earth (a little sphere containing two oxen and a tree).
John sits on ground writing and looking up. Above, in a cloud, seven heads (thunders), label: ne esscriuez pas les signes ke les set toneires unt parle (x.4).
The angel as before (without cloud or rainbow) hands the book to John on R. Label: Receuiz cest livere e deuorez le - serra cum mel (x.9). A face in a cloud above says: Alez si perneiz le liuere - e sur la terre (x.8).
B. John sits and begins to eat the book. He sits full-face holding both hands on his stomach and looks anxious. Angel on R. with label: Il te kouent de rechef prophetizer - e as mus reis (x.11).
f.11a. 32. John seated on L. takes measuring-reed from angel. Label:leuez e mesurez le temple deu e les oraunz en lu (xi.1). The temple on R. Porch: three pointed cupolas form the roof of the main building, divided by four towers. Under a great trefoiled arch below are seen a man and a woman praying on either side of a draped altar.
f.11b. 33. A. In C. the two witnesses, in brown robes, bare fett, red caps, staves, address two crowds seated on R. and L.
B. The witness on L. breathes fire on to the people on L. The other addresses those standing on R.
f.12a. 34. A. Crowd on L., one with wreathed head, point to the witnesses (in lighter brown). The lie on the ground holding a broken spear, and the Beast (a horse covered with mail, with dark-coloured crowned human head), gnaws the hand of one.
B. Buildings and people on R. and L. The witnesses lie dead in C.
f.12b. 35. People on L. The witnesses standing full face. A face above says: Muntez sa. Falling buildings on R. above the feet of the witnesses in clouds. People falling from towers and lying dead on R.
36. John. Angel with trumpet. God throned in quatrefoil within circle, faces in the spandrels saying: Le reaume de cest mund - en secle des secles (or parts of the same text (xi.15)). The crowned elders kneel facing L. with label: Nus rendums graces - e la gent sun cureces (xi. 17,18a). On R. the heavenly temple with shrine (the ark) on alter, under trefoiled arch. Over the roof are six faces, lettered Gresil, Fudres, e vois.
f.13a. 37. A. The red dragon; his neck cleverly represented as a mass of roughness and wrinkles. The woman reclining in bed with cusped nimbus, gold flames of the sun by her, and cresecnt at her feet, hands her child to a kneeling angel on R. The angel bears it up to a vacant throne in a circle on R.
B. The red dragon. The woman seated between trees.
f.13b. 38. Michael with spear and shield standing on the back of the red dragon. Three angels (2 on R., and 1 on L.) fight smaller dragons with hatchet, sword and spear.
Label: Ore est fete saluz - de iur e de nut (xii.10).
f.14a. 39. A. The red dragon casts water out of his mouth, which runs into a hole in the ground. The woman looks back at him. An angel above puts two wongs on her. On R. she flies away over trees.
B. She sits between trees. Angel from above brings her a cake and a bowl.
On R. eight small figures, women, clerics, civilians, in air and on earth fight the dragon (in air) with bow, cross-bow, sword, spear, hatchet. The women hold red objects in their hands.
f.14b. 40. A. John. The red dragon on the shore. On the water stands the second beast, dark and spotted: kneeling worshippers on R. say: Ki est semblable a la beste e ki purra cumbatre od lu.
B. The second beast fighting with ecclesiastics and women: worshippers on R., one has a winged head-dress.
f.15a. 41. A. John. The third beast or false prophet rising out of the earth. He is dark brown, two-horned, and has a short red cloak.
He sits on mound facing R. and points with a short staff to the sky, whence flames pour down. The second beast faces him, and on R. are worshippers.
B. Three men about to kill three martyrs (one a cleric). Two others kneel to the beast who stands on an altar.
f.15b. 42. The false prophet seated on L. Two men with pens about to mark the forehead and hand of the two kneeling men. More people on R., one on horseback.
f.16a. 43. Three-quarter page in three main tiers.
A. John. In C. quatrefoil in circle, the four beasts in spandrels outside. The inner spandrels have a delicate pattern of white on blue. In the quatrefoil is a vacant throne. On R. and L. four compartments in two tiers. Those on L. each contain three, those on R. four crowned elders seated.
B. Ten more elders seated.
C. The Lamb with cross and banner in C. on Mount Sion. One figure in front of the mount, back to the spectator: a crowd on R. and L.
f.16b. 44. John. Above, three angels in air, horizontal, with labels.
(1)Ki auerad aore la beste - e devant le esgard del aignel (xiv.9, 10).
(2)Babilon chei icele graunde ki embeuera la gent de le vin de sa fornicatiun (xiv.8).
(3)Dutez nostre seignur - ke le oure de sun iugement uent (xiv.7a).
Below, two groups of seated people: between them a falling city.
Here the second artist begins.
f.17a. 45. John. Christ crowned and winged, seated in a cloud, holding a scikle. Below, He reaps corn. An angel in Temple. Angel on R. with label: Metez uostre faucille - le ble de la tere esecchist (xiv.15).
46. Angel in Temple, angel on L. with sickle. Angel by flaiming alter with label: Metez ta faucille - les grapes de les sunt meures (xiv.18).
Angel plucking grapes which hang over a wine press. The juice runs out to R. where three horses stand in a city gate.
f.17b. 47. John. Ina cloud stand seven angels conversing.
48. John. On a green sea with a band of red (glass and fire) stands nine people with harps: some are women, and some ecclesiastics.
f.18a. 49. john. In a cloud-enclosed space; on L. the temple: a face seen at a window says: Alez e aspaundes les set fioles del ire de deu en tere.
On R. of the temple are the seven angels in light robes with golden girdles. The foremost takes a gold vial from the claws of the Eagle, who holds six others.
f.18b. 50. First and second vials. The first poured on seated men, who writhe: the second on sea, which is red.
51. The third vial poured on red rivers.
Angel standing in cloud with label: Vus estes dreiturel - si cum il sunt dignes (xvi. 5,6). Above, on R. the altar: a face proceeding out of it on L. says: Nostre seignur de tut pusaunt Â· tas iugemenz sunt uerrais e dreitureus.
Below, John sits on a mound.
f.19a. 52. The fourth vial poured on the sun. Men below writhe.
The fifth poured on a throne (that of the beast). Men on each side sit and gnaw their tongues.
f.19b. 53. The sixth vial poured on water (Euphrates), which divides.
John, facing R. The two beasts on mounds facing each other: the false prophet between them. Three brown-tailed frogs come from the mouth or mouths of each.
54. The seventh vial poured on to seated people. On R. in air three islands (marked Isle). Below, four cities, one falling. Above them on R. in clouds the heavenly temple, with Christ throned in C. in quatrefoil. A face on L. of the throne says: Il est fet. Four heads above, lettered: Fudres, Vois, Toneires, Teremot.
f.20a. 55. John led by an angel with label: Veneis io uus mustrerei - ke set sur mutes ewes (xvii.1). In C. the woman in embroidered garment holding a gold-covered cup sits full-face on the back of the red seven-headed beast.
On R. she sits in a group of hills with three rivers, holding a mirror.
f.20b. 56. John. Babylon fallen: devils' heads seen over the walls; and owls, storks, etc. perched on roofs. Above, an angel with label: O le chei O le chei Babilon la graunt - del ire de sa fornicatium (xviii.2). R. a gate, out of which come monks and a woman to R. On R. a group of kings and other face them. Above, a face in air says: Mun poeple isset de lu - solum sas oeueres (xviii. 4-6).
f.21b. 57. An angel standing on the sea about to drop a millstone into it. A ship on R. with two men.
Label: Babiloine cele graunt cite serra abatu par tel air Â· e iames ne serra troue.
f.22a. 58. A. The Elders adore Christ. John on L. In C. in air Christ throned, a with book inscribed A.Ω. He is in a mandorla with a lozenge. In the sapndrels, w white pattern on blue. On R. and L. faces with labels. (L) Vus tus les seins nostre seignur - potis e grauns (xix.5). (R)Alleluia. Pur co ke nostre seignur deu - ke les noces del ainel uindrent (xix.6,7). On the sides of the lozenge four half-circles contain the four beasts. Below and on R. and L. the crowned elders kneel. Label: Amen Alleluia. On R. and L. above, two faces with labels: (L) Alleluia Lowange e glorie - ki korumpist la tere (xix.1,2). (R)Alleluia. E la fumeie muntera en secle de secles.
B. The marriage-supper of the Lamb. On L. two servants, one with a dish. Then a man in red, with wreath, playing the fiddle. A table. The Bride nimbed embracing the Lamb who stands above the table. Three guests on R. On the nearer side two servants kneel with knife and dish, and cup, and a harper sits.
f.22b. 59. John and the angel. He kneels. The angel takes his R. hand and has a label: veez ne le fetes - orez deu (xix.10).
60. The 'Word of God'. John on L. In a cloud-surrounded space: on R. and L. two bands of nimbed horsemen facing to C. In C. Christ in brown robe on horseback, with seven nimbi, and a sword horizontal at His mouth, the point to L.
On R. outside the cloud, Christ treading the winepress. His light robe is stained with blood and on it is written: Rei des reis Â· e seignur des seignurauns.
f.23a. 61. John. Angel in the sun (a gold disc): label: Venez e asembles uus - e chars des seauns en eus (xix. 17,18).
Below, a crowd of birds flying, among them a magpie, owl, stork.
The second beast at the head of his army facing L.
Three kings and other horsemen, all mailed: one of the horses has a vermilion housing. On three pennons are blue birds, on a fourth a blue lion.
f.23b. 62. Defeat of the beast. Angel stands over hell-mouth, and thrusts down the second beast. The false prophet (in red) is already there, and devils.
On R. lies a crowd of dead mailed men, and horses. Birds feed on them.
23b. 63. Satan imprisoned. John. Angel in air with key, and chain. Red dragon on earth with a chain round neck, held by angel with key who stands and faces R. Dragon thurst down a stone puteal (Le put de abisme) by an angel who faces L. and has fork, and key in the keyhole of the pit.
24a. 64. The first resurrection. John. Four figures (saints, but not nimbed) seated full-face on a rich seat. On R. a crowd of eleven fugures.
65. The final war. On L. seven mailed men attack a walled city with battlements; they have a cross-bow, pick and beam used as a battering-ram against the gate. Within the city are seven heads of people: some are praying. Three more on turrets blow horns. On R. fire falls on the attacking party (ten in number this time). On R. of this an angel in air thrusts down the dragon with spear into hell-mouth.
f.24b. 66. Two-thirds of page. A. In C. Christ in mandorla, throned, shows His wounds. On L. above, three angels with chalice, lance and nails, cross and crown of thorns: below, Peter, a priest, a Franciscan, a woman, a monk, and another.
On. R. above, a group of nude men, women and children standing in water. They hold open books. Below, Hell-mouth: nude figures stand in it holding open books.
B. A large Hell-mouth, the breadth of the picture, full of souls and devils.
25a. 67. John on L. In C. descending from a cloud, the new Jerusalem, many-coloured.
On R. in air, Christ in mandorla with labels: (1) Vees ku (sic) fas tutes choses noueles. Escriuez pur co ke ce(s) paroles sunt tres leaus. (2)Io su A e Ω. cumencement e fin. Io durrei a celu ki ad seif de la funtaine del. From a face on R. of throne comes a label: Veez le tabernacle de deu - ne plur Â· ne cri (xxi. 3,4).
Below on R. John sits facing L., writing and looking up at Christ.
25b. 68. Two-thirds of the page. The new Jerusalem, laid out in ground-plan with three gates on each side. At bottom on L. John led upwards by the hand of an angel who says: Vene(z) io uus mustrerai la femme espuse del aignel. In C. is a square of exquisitely patterened gold: within it, below, an angel with measuring-rod stooping to R.: above, on L. God throned, with book inscribed AMEN: the Lamb on L. From below His feet a stream of water goes to R. and passes through a beautiful conventional pattern of branch-work, many-coloured.
Over the gates (in capitals usually) are written the names of the tribes: at the top Iudas, Simeon, Leui. On R. Ruben, Isacar, Zabulon. Below, Dan, Neptalim, Gad. On L. Azer, Iozep, Beniamin.
The background of the gats is composed of parallel bands of gold, silver, brown, blue, purple, pink, etc., seemingly in twelve in number, not counting those that compose the frame. On these are the names of the Apostles in white capitals, which have been to some extent defaced.
At top, in C. SC. (PE)RE. SC. IOHAN. On L. SC. IVDE.
On R. SC. BARNABE. SC. ANDREV.
Below, SC. MATHEV. SC. PHILIP. SC. TOMAS.
On L. SC. SCIMON. SC. IACOB.
I seem to see another hand at work in the drawing o f the figures in this picture.
27a. 69. John kneels to an angel, with blank label.
On R. he kneels to Christ in mandorla, with blank label. Outside the mandorla is a lovely pattern of yellow on blue.
On. f.28 sqq. the series of pictures illustrating the life of John is continued. There are three pictures on a page separated by broad bands containing the titles, which are in a larger hand than those at the beginning.
28a. 70. The death of Domitian. In C. he lies on the ground, crowned, covered with wounds. On L. two knights, one drawing his sword, the other about to strike and holding Domitian by the elbow. On R. two not in armour attack him with axes: a third in mail, with gold helmet, pierces him with a spear.
(I)ci coment les romeins oscient le empereur e ren ne uolerent auer estable de kaunt ke il establi.72. John's return. On L. a ship with sail, and steerer with paddle. John with book steps out. Four people and a servant with a horse meet him. Label: Beneit seit le nun deu ki seint iohan nus a remene de issil.
(I)Ci coment seint iohan reuent de issil apres la mort domicien e cum le poeple uent a cuntre lu.72. John raises Drusiana. He stands in the doorway. Druisiana sits up ona bier, five relations by her.
On R. two poor men, one with a child attending, who carries a bowl, woth with a child on his shoulders.
Three labels: (John) Li men segnur ihesu crist te resuscite drusieine. Leuez sus si ua a ta mseun. si me aparaile a manger. (The husband) Vn deue est ki seint iohan preche. e un uerrai ihesu crist nostre segnur. (A woman) Beau sire ueez nostre amie drusiein ke nus portum ci morte Â· ke desireit uostre repeir.
(I)Ci cument lemporte drusiein pur enterer e cum seint iohan la resuscite par la priere des poueres.
28b. 73. The jewels broken and restored. Crato the philosopher in brown habit with cowl and stick. Label: La richesce de cest secle ren ne uaut. Ales e despesces uos peres.
People listen to him. Two men break up jewels on anvils with hammers.
On R. Crato and five others face towards John (R.).
Labels: (Crato) Si uostre mestre uoit ki le pris de ces gemmes seit done as poueres fui les enters. (John,1) Sire deu fetes ore ke ces gemmes seient enters e en meimes le beaute ke il furent. (2) Fol desp(i)te i ad ici del munde ki est lowe des buches des hommes. e despit de deu. si en ueine est la mescine ke ne ostre le enfermete.
(I)ci cum crato le filosofe precha le despit del munde e cum seint iohan le areisune del depescer des peres.
74. Conversation of Crato. He and his disciples kneel to John.
On R. John baptizes some of them in tubs: two others are stripping.
Ci cum craton od sas deciples e od les deus iuuenceus cheent deuaunt les pes del apostle. e cum il sunt baptizez.
75. Two youths give bread out of a basket held by a boy, to a crowd of poor: two (Atticus and Eugenius) are behind John, who is speaking.
Ci cum les iuuenceus departent le pris des peres os poueres Â· e cum les deus riches hommes de la cite de epheses siwent seint iohan.
29a. 76. An old man. John with label: Alez si acatez uos teres ke vus vendistes. Kar le celestien guerdun auez perdu Â· e ore vus acatez uestiment de seie e kaunt uostre richesce serra ale si perderez le pardurable gi (?).
On the ground are bundles of golden rods, and jewels. The two youths Atticus and Eugenius stoop. Label: Ki uint unkes a nus de iloec ki nus pusum crere.
On R. stand three men.
Ci cum seint iohan turna les varges en or e les uiles peres en peres preciuses.
77. John with label: Di iuuencel Â· Jo ai espaundu lermes pur tai a deu nustre seignur ke tu puses resusciter de mort Â· pur co ke uus annuntiez a ces deus iuuenceus cum graunt peine les atent. Three youths sit up in a rich sarcophagus. By it kneels a youth in brown.
The three raised youths and another face R. One has a label: Io ui uos aungeles plorauns e les aungeles satanas asioisauns de uostre perdicium. ia auez perdu le regne ke uus est aparile.
There is a mistake here. John only raised one dead man, the kneeling fugure: the three others were raised by Christ, and John merely tells the story of it.
On R. are the two youths in grief.
(I)ci cum sint iohan resuscite treis mors e le fiz de une uedue ki blasme les iuuenceus.
78. John with label: Offreis repentaunce trente iurs a deu en queus les uerges pusent returner a lur naturere les gemmes ensement.
Six people (two being the youths) kneel to him.
On R. the two youths kneel facing R. The handles of rods and the stones are seen on R.
(I)ci cum seint iohan dist co ke il deuient fere pur lur trespas.
29b. 79. John with label: Nostre sire iesu crist dist ke il ne uoit pas la mort des peccheurs mais ke il conuertisent e uesquisent e dist de ceus ki se repentent ke greinure ioie est al cel de.
The two youths face him: Label: Ben sauuns ke nus auuns pecche mes oiz pleines de lermes nus repentuns. E ore te priuns ke la misericorde ke uus auez preche en fet nus demustreis en fet.
On R. the two face R. One has a bundle of rods on his shoulder, the other empties a lap full of pebbles at the foot of two trees.
(I)ci cum seint iohan cumforte les iuuenceus e cum il reportent les uerges al bois.
80. (John destroys Diana's temple). Crowd on L., one with wreath. John faces R. with label and points to a falling temple. Among the ruins is a niche with an image of Diana, a dark ugly woman, crowned. Crowd on R. face L.
Label: Sache ceste multitudne de gent ke cest ydle de diane est diable e ore comaund io al nun nostre seignur ihesu crist ke cest temple de diaine seit destrut od tut les ydles ke en li sunt. issi ke nul houme ne eit dammage.
(I)ci cum le temple od tut les ydles chei par le preere seint iohan.
81. John with label. Aristodemus (with label) and a crowd of four face him. Aristodemus is mitred. On R. he stands before a throned ruler and speaks.
Label: (John). Coment porrei io oster ceste mescreaunce de tun corage si tu me dounces uenin a beiuere Â· e io le nun de mun deu apele ia tun uenim ne me nuira. (Aristodemus.) Si tu uois ke io creie en tun deu io te dorrei uenin a beiere Â· e kaunt tu le aueras beu si tu sempres ne mures dunc aparra ke tun deu est uerrai ke to preches.
(I)ci cum seint iohan areisune aristodime e cum aristodime demaunde deus dampnes de la mestre de la cite a beuiere le uenim deuaunt seint iohan.30a. 82. John drinking the poison out of a gold cup: Aristodemus and crowd watch him: before them lietwo distorted corpses.
On R. Aristodemus facing R. lays a garment on the two dead men: four others on R. watch.
Labels: (John.) Sire deu le men pere ihesu crist a ki tute creature sert e a ki tote uermine tapist serpent dragun.
(Aristodemus.) Ou tu lessez ceste doctrine ou tu beuez cest uenim si mustreras cum tun deu est pusaunt si tu remaines uif apres ceo ke tu le aueras bu.
(Aristodemus on R.) A uus me enueit le apostle ihesu crist ke uus releueiz en sun nun ke tuz sachent ke uie e mort est suiet al men seignur ihesu crist.
(I)ci cum seint iohan beitle uenim e cum aristodime met la cote seint iohan sur les enuenimes.
83. John with label: Alez si iunes une semain. Aristodemus in mitre and another kneel to him. In C. he baptizes a man in a tub on legs. Aristodemus strips. Two on R. watch.
(I)ci cum seint iohan dist a aristodime e al mestre de la cite co ke il deiuent fere Â· e koment il les baptize.
84. The story of the Robber (see Clem. Alex. Quis diues saluetur). John with a youth between his arms whom he commends to a Bishop.
Label: Icestu uus comauned io a garder e endoctriner al tesmoine ihesu crist e etote seint eglise.
In C. the Bishop, seated, teaches the youth, also seated.
On R. the Bishop baptizes him in a rich font.
(I)ci cum seint iohan baut a la eueske un iuuencel a garder. e cum le eueske enseignet le iuuencel. e cum il le baptize.
30b. 85. John and the Bishop facing, with labels. John says: Rendez a mai celu ke io uus comaundai Â· e par le tesmoine de ceste seinte eglise ke uus gouernez Â· Io te demaund le iuuencel ke io comaunda. The Bishop, dejected, says: Mors est. Verroiment est il mort a deu Â· kar il se departi plain des totes mauueistes Â· e al derein deuint mauueis larun e ore si est un munt od graunt cumpainie de larruns si ad le munt purpris pur la gent gattes e oscire e rober.
In C. two trees, with birds on them prjecting outside the frame. Two men with bows shoot at the birds. The youth sits on a mound on R. facing L. with a bow. A man with wreath on R. strings a bow.
(I)ci cum seint iohan demaunde le iuuencel Â· e cum il est al bois od laruns.
86. John on a dapple-grey horse riding to R., with label: Pur quai fues tu beau fiz tun pere Â· pur quai fues tu un ueillard sanz armes. merci eez de tai e ne eez nent de pour Â· kar unkeore poez auer esperaunce de uie. Beau fiz esteez. A man with wreath, and arrows at his belt, catches the horse's rein. Another facing L. draws his bow. The youth looks to L. and runs to R. among trees.
(I)ci cum le iuuencel senfut Â· e cum seint iohan point apres si le apele doucement.
In C. he baptizes him in a green font. On R. he leads him by the hand into the door of a church on R.
(I)ci cum seint iohan baise la destre del iuuencel Â· e cum il le baptize Â· e cum il le remene al eglise dunt il fu issu.
f.31a. On this leaf the inscriptions have not been added, and the drawing is by an inferior hand, and the colouring paler.
88. John and another kneel on L. to an altar in C. On R. John gives a key to one on L. Three people stand in a door on R.
This probably represents the consecration of the church in which John afterwards died.
89. John kneels on L. A beardless Apostle in C (it should be Christ) holds a church with open doors, and speaks. Behind are six more Apostles, of whom Peter with book is foremost.
This represents Christ appearing with His disciples to John (then aged 99) and bidding him prepare to join them in five days.
90. A crowd of men and women seated and standing listen to John, who stands in blue chasuble, with cross-staff, facing L. Behind him is an altar. He resembles Peter in no. 88. On R. are two men digging his grave with spade and pick.
John's farewell to his people. At his command, a grave is dug for him.
f.31b. has only one picture at the top.
91. On L. a group of people face R. John in pink chasuble, with joined ahnds, stands in a marble sarcophagus in the floor.
In C. is a draped altar. The same sarcophagus, empty. Four people on R. look into it and converse.
Thus represents John descending into his grave: after three days it is found to be empty.
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Die Trinity-Apocalypse = The Trinity Apocalypse, Cambridge, Trinity College Library, MS R.16.2 ... facsimile [produced by] Faksimile Verlag Luzern (Luzern c2004)
The Trinity apocalypse (Trinity College Cambridge, MS R.16.2) / edited by David McKitterick ; [essays by] David McKitterick, Nigel Morgan, Ian Short and Teresa Webber (London, Toronto, 2005)
Die Trinity-Apokalypse : Kommentar zur Faksimile-Ausgabe der Handschrift MS R.16.2 aus dem Trinity College, Cambridge (UK) / herausgegeben von David McKitterick ; mit Beiträgen von David McKitterick, Nigel Morgan, Ian Short, Teresa Webber (Luzern, cc2004)
Apocalypse anglo-normande (Cambridge Trinity College MS. R.16.2) : reproduction photographique en couleurs suivie de l'édition des textes / publiée par Yorio Otaka & Hideka Fukui (Osaka, 1977)
The Trinity Apocalypse, Cambridge, Trinity College Library, MS R.16.2 (London, 200-?)
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